Cardiovascular disease, also known as circulatory disease, is a series of diseases involving the circulatory system. The circulatory system refers to organs and tissues that carry blood in the human body, mainly including the heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins, microvessels), which can be subdivided into acute And chronic, are generally associated with arteriosclerosis. Xiaobian introduced under the symptoms of cardiovascular disease.
Palpitation is a symptom of subjective and objective signs of cardiovascular disease. Subjective patients feel heart beating fast, not intact or pulsating. Objective examination can be seen heart rate too fast, too slow or missing, that is, heart rate and heart rate changes.
2, breathing difficulties
Dyspnea is also a comprehensive manifestation of subjective and objective signs. Subjective feeling of breathing effort, the number of objective breathing increased, action and increase the rate of increase.
Chest of various organs can be symptoms of dyspnea. Such as cerebral infarction, pneumonia, acute pneumothorax, airway obstruction, chest wall muscle inflammation, rib fractures, etc., and even skin shingles disease pain can also lead to difficulty breathing. Heart disease heart disease more difficult to gradually progressive, gradually increased.
1. Exertional dyspnea (exertional dyspnea): Institute of Nephrology, Chinese Academy of Sciences normal people in the strenuous exercise also have a feeling of difficulty breathing, stop the movement soon after the recovery. Patients with heart disease develop symptoms when they do not experience dyspnea, and they are slow to recover and do not recover.
2. Orthopnea (orthopnea): the performance of patients can not be supine or can not be supine supine, oblique position and even sit, both lower limbs hanging from the bed. The mechanism can not be supine
① supine lower limb and abdominal blood loss of gravity for cardiovascular disease, return to the heart increased, increasing the workload of the heart;
② lower lung capacity decreased. Normal human supine lung capacity was slightly reduced (-5%), the patient due to pulmonary congestion and other factors, lung capacity decreased more (up to -25%).
3. Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea: also known as "cardiogenic asthma" to distinguish it from asthma caused by asthma. Occurrence mechanism In addition to the above two points, the sensitivity of the respiratory center after falling asleep, lung congestion to a certain extent caused by significant hypoxia, so that patients wake up from sleep has been extremely difficult to breathe. The patient immediately changed from the lying position to the sitting position, and even standing position, the symptoms can gradually ease.
4. Acute pulmonary edema (acute pulmonary edema): is the most serious type of dyspnea, can affect the patient's life, the need for acute emergency treatment. The patient showed extreme breathing difficulties, sit breathing, obvious hypoxia, and constantly cough pink foam sputum.
Cyanosis (cyanosis) is a sign, refers to the mucous membrane and skin was purple. In vivo reduction of hemoglobin cardiovascular disease protein (without oxygen saturation of hemoglobin) absolute value of more than 5g% (6 ~ 7vol% of the degree of unsaturation). Cyanotic mechanisms for hypoxia, excessive hemoglobin, and blood stasis. There are two types of central and peripheral.
1. Center type: refers to the heart and lung organs in the level of cyanosis. Arterial blood due to lack of oxygen or mixed with too much oxygen without oxygen. Seen in the right to the left shunt of congenital heart disease, such as Tetralogy of Fallot, Eisenman syndrome, etc., and due to pulmonary arterial pressure caused by late separation of right to left shunt. Lung disease caused by blood oxygenation disorder is also an important reason for central cyanosis. In severe heart failure, lung congestion affects oxygenation to produce central cyanosis.
The central violet is aggravated during exercise. Long-term hypoxia can occur hemoglobin increased and clubbing toe.
2. Peripheral cyanosis: seen in the surrounding blood flow is too slow, the unit time to absorb too much blood oxygen tissue. Peripheral cyanosis in the activities did not significantly increase.
Heart failure when the blood flow is slow, the surrounding tissue oxygen up. So its cyanosis is integrated in two forms.