The main methods of antiviral of Chinese herbal medicine can be divided into direct antiviral pathway and indirect anti-virus pathway. Direct antiviral pathway is the direct inhibition or damage of the drug to the virus. The indirect antiviral action is the antiviral effect of traditional Chinese medicine through the regulation of organism immune system, which is the two important aspects that can not be neglected in the mechanism of Chinese herbal medicine, usually, they promote each other and complement each other.
The main point is to block the virus breeding process in a certain link. Studies have confirmed that many Chinese medicines have direct antiviral activity, such as Litchi nucleus, cork, rhubarb, Salvia miltiorrhiza, urinaria, light bamboo leaves, radix paeoniae rubra, astragalus, green coffee beans and so on. The direct antiviral action of traditional Chinese medicine can be divided into three stages according to the proliferation of virus in host cells and the study of antiviral effect of traditional Chinese medicine.
1, pre-invasion antiviral effect
At present, the research shows that the antiviral mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine in this link can be divided into two kinds. A kind of "direct kill" function, such as the anthraquinone in rhubarb alcohol extract in many in vitro experiments confirmed that the virus has a direct killing effect. The other is to prevent the virus particles from absorbing the target cells. The results showed that the flavonoids, polysaccharides and their derivatives, triterpene compounds and their derivatives, alkaloids and glycosides in the antiviral active ingredient of traditional Chinese medicine were inhibited by inhibiting the adsorption of viral particles on host cells.
2, intracellular antiviral proliferation action
A large number of studies have confirmed that sulfuric acid, glucose, and sulfuric acid can be used in the HSV-infected cells, inhibit a special reverse transcriptase activity, thus inhibiting the DNA virus.
3, anti-virus spread effect
In recent years, it has been reported that the polysaccharide (Schzophyllan) has inhibitory effect on the proliferation of Sendai virus in vitro. Study on inhibition of glycyrrhizin on VSV in vitro it was found that the virus infected with Glycyrrhizin after 16h, can inhibit the spread of the virus from infected cells to uninfected cells.
4, induced interferon (IFN)
Interferon is a natural non-specific immune defense system with broad spectrum antiviral effect, the interferon produced by the cells in the invading site can penetrate to the adjacent cells and restrict the spread of the virus to the periphery, and the interferon itself has no inactivation to the virus, which mainly acts on the normal cells, making it produce antiviral protein and inhibit the biosynthesis of the viral polymers, and make the cells obtain the antiviral ability.
Modern research confirms that there are many drugs with endogenous IFN inducing or inducing effect, such as the ability of Lentinus edodes extracted from Lentinus edodes to induce serum IFN in mice. Japanese scholars extracted Glycyrrhizin and Glycyrrhizic acid preparation from licorice can induce Shan type IFN and enhance cellular immune function; Chanrisen ET (1985) reported that artesunate in Artemisia annua in vivo can induce a acid-resistant interferon.