According to the World Health Organization's expected 34 million people worldwide currently infected by the human immunodeficiency virus HIV, 10% of whom were children. Despite the introduction of antiretroviral drugs to control HIV infection, especially in developed countries, scientists are always looking for a way to prevent new infections, and people with this virus may eventually be removed from vaccines. So far, however, there is no HIV vaccine closer to full protection. Further reading: PNAS: why some HIV vaccines have the opposite effect?.
Recently, Emory University School of medicine and Yerkes National Primate Research Center and the Center for children's health care of Atlanta virologist who, for "HIV how to assemble its infectious cloak", presents detailed explanations of the key.
HIV to be transmitted between cells, the virus envelope protein (Env) into virus particles is required (when they emerged from infected cells). Under the leadership of Paul Spearman, the researchers found, the envelope protein "tail" a small part is necessary for the integration of viral particles. Research results are published in the June 1 issue of the United States National Academy of Sciences journal (PNAS).
These results could explain why HIV envelope protein had an unusually long tail, this element and different from similar viruses. The long tail is essential to HIV replication in cells and infection, HIV is more like macrophages and t-cells. The long tail is thought to help the AIDS virus evade the immune system, if you understand "how it can manipulate it", you can help researchers design more effective vaccines.
Spearman, co-author of this paper is Center for children's health care of Atlanta's Chief Research Officer, Deputy Director of the Emory University School of Medicine Department of Pediatrics. Eric Hunter, co-author of this article is Director of the Emory Center for AIDS research. Before Spearman postdoctoral Mingli Qi and colleagues found that a protein from the host cell (called a Rab11-FIP1C), for the envelope protein of HIV like part of virus particles in the cell, is important.
Spearman said, according to this new study, we found that the protein is to determine the envelope protein into t cells and macrophages are key factors. Now that we know the necessary part of the envelope protein, which may be combined with the Rab11-FIP1C part, more evidence that this pathway is very important for the virus.
Characteristics of HIV viral particles are, have a relatively sparse level of Env proteins, the protein is thought to help HIV to avoid stimulating the immune system. It may interfere with or enhance the integration of HIV envelope protein to the cell. Enhancing the process, can allow researchers a non-infectious virus-like particles to design a more effective vaccine. Instead, the interference envelope protein into, antiviral drugs might be a target.